The seismic damage of typical reinforced concrete (RC) frames based on the classroom buildings and office buildings of the Xuankou School, which are close to the epicenter of Wenchuan Earthquake, is simulated and analyzed. According to the seismic damage characters, a micro-macro multi-scale finite element (FE) model is proposed to accurately simulate the seismic damage of the structures. Based on the multi-scale FE model, an improved macro FE model considering the influence of slabs and footing rotations is proposed to improve the computational efficiency. With the micro-macro multi-scale FE model and the improved macro FE model, the collapse process of classroom buildings and office buildings is simulated with elastic-plastic time-history analysis. By comparing the collapse modes and failure mechanisms of the structures, critical positions that influence seismic collapse resistance of a structure are found, which could be used for a reference for the improvement of seismic collapse prevention design of RC frame structures.