Engineering Mechanics ›› 2019, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (2): 1-16.doi: 10.6052/j.issn.1000-4750.2018.01.0037

    Next Articles

SELECTION AND SCALING OF REAL ACCELEROGRAMS AS INPUT TO TIME-HISTORY ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES: A STATE-OF-THE-ART REVIEW

ZHANG Rui1,2, LI Hong-nan1, WANG Dong-sheng3, CHENG Hu1   

  1. 1. Faculty of Infrastructure Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China;
    2. School of Civil and Safety Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028, China;
    3. School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401, China
  • Received:2018-01-05 Revised:2018-08-06 Online:2019-02-22 Published:2019-02-22

Abstract: This paper reviews various selection methods of real records for time-history analysis of structures in recent years. The selections of criteria and required numbers of records are summarized and classified. Specific earthquake scenarios, such as the magnitude, distance and site classification, are generally considered in the first step. Then, the target spectrum and other intensity measures (IMs) of the ground motions are taken into consideration. Presently, dozens of IMs have been developed, but there is no agreement on the relationship between IMs and structural responses, as well as the advantages of IMs in the selection of records. The method that selects and scales real ground motion records according to target spectra is the most popular. There are many kinds of target spectra, among which the design spectra in codes are the most popular because of the easy implementation in practice. The Conditional Mean Spectrum (CMS) is more accurate. How to introduce CMS into the Chinese code is worth of further studying. The selection of deviation parameters and scaling methods for estimating the mean responses of a structure should be taken in aspect of getting the optimum selection in real records that can match the spectral shape. With the development of the performance-based seismic design and the gradually perfection of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA), estimations of structural responses have been developed from mean values to probability distributions. The selection criteria and required number of records for estimations of the probability distributions of structural responses need to be further studied.

Key words: time-history analysis, selection of real records, review, target spectrum, intensity measures, required number

CLC Number: 

  • P315.9
[1] Bommer J J, Acevedo A. The use of real earthquake accelerograms as input to dynamic analysis[J]. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 2004, 8(1):43-91.
[2] 李英民, 赖明, 白绍良. 工程结构的地震动输入问题[J]. 工程力学, 2003, 20(増刊):76-87. Li Yingmin, Lai Ming, Bai Shaoliang. Selection of earthquake records as input to dynamic analysis of structures[J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2003, 20(Suppl):76-87. (in Chinese)
[3] Nau J M, Hall W J. Scaling methods for earthquake response spectra[J]. Structure Engineering, 1984, 110(7):1533-1548.
[4] 王亚勇. 结构抗震设计时程分析法中地震波的选择[J]. 工程抗震, 1988, 12(4):15-22. Wang Yayong. Selection of earthquake ground motion for structural time-history analysis[J]. Earthquake Resistant Engineering, 1988, 12(4):15-22. (in Chinese)
[5] Shome N, Cornell C A, Bazzurro P. et al. Earthquakes, records and nonlinear responses[J]. Earthquake Spectra, 1998, 14(3):469-500.
[6] Iervolino I, Cornell C A. Record selection for nonlinear seismic analysis of structures[J]. Earthquake Spectra, 2005, 21(7):685-713.
[7] Stewart J P, Chiou S J, Bray J D, et al. Ground motion evaluation procedures for performance-based design[R]. Berkeley, U.S.:Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, 2001.
[8] Bommer J J, Scott S G, Sarma S K. Hazard-consistent earthquake scenarios[J]. Soil Dynamics & Earthquake Engineering, 2000,19(4):219-231.
[9] Bommer J J, Martínez-Pereira A. The effective duration of earthquake strong motion[J]. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 1999, 3(2):127-172.
[10] Bommer J J, Martínez-Pereira A. Strong-motion parameters:definition, usefulness and predictability[C]. Auckland, New Zealand:Proceedings of the Twelfth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 2000:206.
[11] Bommer J J, Ruggeri C. The specification of acceleration time-histories in seismic design codes[J]. European Earthquake Engineering, 2002, 16(1):3-17.
[12] ASCE. Seismic analysis of safety-related nuclear structures and commentary. ASCE standardno.004-98[S]. Reston, Virginia:American Society of Civil Engineers, 2000.
[13] EPPO. Hellenic antiseismic code (EAK2000)[S]. Athens, Greece:Ministry of Public Works, 2000.
[14] Hancock J, Bommer J J. A state of knowledge review of the influence of strong motion duration on structural damage[J]. Earthquake Spectra, 2006, 22(3):827-845.
[15] 肖明葵, 刘纲, 白绍良. 基于能量反应的地震动输入选择方法讨论[J]. 世界地震工程, 2006, 22(3):90-96. Xiao Mingkui, Liu Gang, Bai Shaoliang. Some methods of selecting earthquake wave based on energy responses[J]. World Information on Earthquake Engineering, 2006, 22(3):90-96. (in Chinese)
[16] 王亚勇, 刘小弟, 程民宪. 建筑结构时程分析法输入地震波的研究[J]. 建筑结构学报, 1991, 12(2):51-60. Wang Yayong, Liu Xiaodi, Cheng Minxian. Study on the input of earthquake ground motion for time-history analysis of structures[J]. Journal of Building Structures, 1991,12(2):51-60. (in Chinese)
[17] Baker J W, Cornell C A. A vector-valued ground motion intensity measure consisting of spectral acceleration and epsilon[J]. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 2005, 34(10):1193-1217.
[18] Goulet C A, Haselton C B, Mitrani-Reiser Beck J L, et al. Evaluation of the seismic performance of a code-conforming reinforced concrete frame building from seismic hazard to collapse safety and economic losses[J]. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 2007, 36(13):1973-1997.
[19] CEN. Eurocode8:Design of structures for earthquake resistance. Part1:general rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings. Draft No.5, Document CEN/TC250/SC8/N317[S]. Brussels, Belgium:European Committee for Standardization, 2002.
[20] ASCE. Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures. ASCE standard no.007-05[S]. Reston, Virginia:American Society of Civil Engineers, 2006.
[21] FEMA. NEHRP recommended provisions for seismic regulations for new buildings and other structures, 2000 edition, Part1 FEMA368[S]. Washington, DC:Building Seismic Safety Council for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2001.
[22] NZS1170.5. Structural design actions, Part5:earthquake actions-New Zealand code and supplement[S]. Wellington, New Zealand:Standards New Zealand, 2004.
[23] Ordinanza del Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri (OPCM) n. 3274. Norme tecniche per il progetto, la valutazione e l'adeguamento sismico degli edifici[S]. Italy:Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana, 2003.
[24] Katsanos E I, Sextos A G, Manolis G D. Selection of earthquake ground motion records:A state-of-the-art review from a structural engineering perspective[J]. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 2010, 30(4):157-169.
[25] 李琳, 温瑞智, 周宝峰, 等. 基于条件均值反应谱的特大地震强震记录的选取及调整方法[J]. 地震学报, 2013, 35(3):380-389. Li Lin, Wen Ruizhi, Zhou Baofeng, et al. Selection and scaling of ground motion records for great scenario earthquakes based on the conditional mean spectrum[J]. Acta Seismologica Sinica, 2013, 35(3):380-389. (in Chinese)
[26] 崔江余, 杜修力. 重大工程设定地震动确定[J]. 世界地震工程, 2000, 16(4):25-28. Cui Jiangyu, Du Xiuli. Determination of design ground motion for critical engineering project[J]. World Information on Earthquake Engineering, 2000, 16(4):25-28. (in Chinese)
[27] Naeim F, Le M. On the use of design spectrum compatible time histories[J]. Earthquake Spectra., 1995, 11(1):111-127.
[28] Reiter L. Earthquake hazard analysis:issues and insights[M]. New York, U.S:Columbia University Press, 1990.
[29] Malhotra P K. Seismic response spectra for probabilistic analysis of nonlinear systems[J]. Journal of Structural Engineering, 2011, 137(11):1272-1281.
[30] Baker J W, Cornell C A. Spectral shape, epsilon and record selection[J]. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 2006, 35(9):1077-1095.
[31] Baker J W. Conditional mean spectrum:tool for ground-motion selection[J]. Journal of Structural Engineering, 2011, 137(3):322-331.
[32] Baker J W, Jayaram N. Correlation of spectral acceleration values from NGA ground motion models[J]. Earthquake Spectra, 2008, 24(1):299-317.
[33] Ghafory-Ashtiany M, Azarbakht A, Mousavi M. State of the art:structure-specific strong ground motion selection by emphasizing on spectral shape indicators[C]. Lisbon, Portugal:Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 2012.
[34] Haselton C B. Evaluation of ground motion selection and modification methods:predicting median interstory drift response of buildings[R]. Berkeley, U. S.:Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center College of Engineering, 2009.
[35] Wang G, Youngs R R, Power M, Li Z. Design ground motion library:an interactive tool for selecting earthquake Ground Motions[J]. Earthquake Spectra,2015,31(2):617-635.
[36] Marasco S, Cimellaro G P. A new energetic based ground motion selection and modification algorithm[C]. Santiago, Chile:Proceedings of the 16th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 2017.
[37] Mahmoud M H. Quake Manager:A software framework for ground motion record management, selection, analysis and modification[C]. Beijing, China:Proceedings of the 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 2008.
[38] Shantz T. Selection and scaling of earthquake records for nonlinear dynamic analysis of first mode dominate bridge structures[C]. San Francisco. Oakland, California:Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Proceedings of the 8th National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 2006.
[39] Mousavi M, Ghafory-Ashtiany M, Azarbakht A. A new indicator of elastic spectral shape for the reliable selection of ground motion records[J]. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 2011, 40(2):1403-1416.
[40] 陈波. 结构非线性动力分析中地震动记录的选择和调整方法研究[D]. 哈尔滨:中国地震局地球物理研究所, 2013. Chen Bo. Ground motion selection and modification methods for performing nonlinear dynamic analysis of buildings[D]. Harbin:Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, 2013. (in Chinese)
[41] 韩建平, 魏世龙, 张鑫. 地震动记录选择与调整对RC框架结构地震响应影响研究[J]. 土木工程学报, 2016, 49(增刊):43-48. Han Jianping, Wei Shilong, Zhang Xin. Investigation on selection and modification of ground motion records for the influence of seismic responses of RC frames[J]. China Civil Engineering Journal, 2016, 49(Suppl):43-48. (in Chinese)
[42] Smerzini C, Galasso C, Iervolino I, et al. Ground motion record selection based on broadband spectral compatibility[J]. Earthquake Spectra, 2014, 30(4):1427-1448.
[43] Luco N, Cornell C A. Structure-specific scalar intensity measures for near-source and ordinary earthquake motions[J]. Earthquake Spectra, 2007, 23(2):357-392.
[44] Tothong P, Luco N. Probabilistic seismic demand analysis using advanced ground motion intensity measures[J]. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 2007, 36(13):1837-1860.
[45] Kalkan E, Chopra A K. Practical guidelines to select and scale earthquake records for nonlinear response history analysis of structures[R]. Berkeley, U.S.:Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, 2010.
[46] Youngs R R, Power M S, Chin C C. Design ground library[C]. San Francisco, CA:Proceedings of the 8th National Conference on Earthqake Engineering, 2006.
[47] 张锐, 成虎, 吴浩, 等. 时程分析考虑高阶振型影响的多频段地震波选择方法研究[J]. 工程力学, 2018, 35(6):162-172. Zhang Rui, Cheng Hu, Wu Hao, et al. Multi-band matching method for selection of ground motions in time-history analysis considering higher modes effects[J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2018, 35(6):162-172. (in Chinese)
[48] 张锐, 成虎, 吴浩, 等. 考虑高阶振型影响选波方法对近断层地震动输入适用性研究[J]. 沈阳建筑大学学报, 2018, 34(3):439-448. Zhang Rui, Cheng Hu, Wu Hao, et al. Applicability of records selection method considering higher modes effects for near-fault ground motions[J]. Journal of Shenyang Jianzhu University, 2018, 34(3):439-448. (in Chinese)
[49] 王德才, 华贝, 叶献国. 匹配目标谱模拟地震动记录时频特征对比分析[J]. 工程抗震与加固改造, 2016, 38(6):122-128, 135. Wang Decai, Hua Bei, Ye Xianguo. Comparison of time-frequency characteristics of spectrum-compatible ground motion records[J]. Earthquake Resistant Engineering and Retrofitting, 2016, 38(6):122-128, 135. (in Chinese)
[50] Martinez-Rueda J E. Scaling procedure for natural accelerograms based on a system of spectrum intensity scales[J]. Earthquake Spectra, 1998, 14(1):135-152.
[51] Kappos A J, Kyriakakis P. A re-evaluation of scaling techniques for natural records[J]. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 2000, 20(1/2/34):111-123
[52] Shome N, Cornell C A. Probabilistic seismic demand analysis of nonlinear structures[R]. Stanford, U.S:Stanford University, 1999.
[53] Watson-Lamprey J A, Abrahamson N A. Selection of ground motion time series and limits on scaling[J]. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 2006, 26(5):477-482.
[54] Catalán Ariel, Amadeo Benavent-Climent, Xavier Cahís. Selection and scaling of earthquake records in assessment of structures in low-to-moderate seismicity zones[J]. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 2010, 30(1/2):40-49.
[55] 高学奎, 朱晞. 近场地震动输入问题的研究[J]. 华北科技学院学报, 2005, 2(3):80-83.Gao Xuekui, Zhu Xi. Study on selecting inputting waves for seismic response analysis excited by near-fault earthquakes[J]. Journal of North China Institute of Science & Technology, 2005, 2(3):80-83. (in Chinese)
[56] Haselton C B, Whittaker A S, Hortacsu A, et al. Selecting and scaling earthquake ground motions for performing response-history analyses[C]. Lisboa, Portugal:Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 2012.
[57] Beyer K, Bommer J J. Selection and scaling of real accelerograms for bi-directional loading:a review of current practice and code provisions[J]. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 2007, 11(Suppl):13-45.
[58] Ambraseys N N, Douglas J, Rinaldis D, et al. Dissemination of European strong-motion data, vol.2, CD-ROM collection[C]. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, UK, 2004.
[59] Iervolino I, Galasso C, Cosenza E. REXEL:computer aided record selection for code-based seismic structural analysis[J]. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 2010, 8(2):339-362.
[60] Reyes J C, Kalkan E. Required number of records for ASCE/SEI 7 ground motion scaling procedure[R]. U.S.:Geological Survey Open-File Report, 2011.
[61] 周颖, 唐少将. 考虑高阶振型的工程地震动选取方法[J]. 地震工程与工程振动, 2014, 34(增刊):69-75. Zhou Ying, Tang Shaojiang. A method of engineering ground motion selection considering higher modes[J]. Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Dynamics, 2014, 34(Suppl):69-75. (in Chinese)
[62] 冀昆, 温瑞智, 任叶飞. 适用于我国抗震设计规范的天然强震记录选取[J]. 建筑结构学报, 2017, 38(12):57-67. Ji Kun, Wen Ruizhi, Ren Yefei. Ground motion recordings selection for seismic design code[J]. Journal of Building Structures, 2017, 38(12):57-67. (in Chinese)
[63] 杨溥, 李英民, 赖明. 结构时程分析法输入地震波的选择控制指标[J]. 土木工程学报, 2000, 33(6):33-37. Yang Pu, Li Yingmin, Lai Ming. A new method for selecting inputting waves for time-history analysis[J]. China Civil Engineering Journal, 2000, 33(6):33-37. (in Chinese)
[64] 刘良林, 王全凤, 沈章春, 等. 基于弹性总输入能的地震波选择方法[J]. 华侨大学学报, 2009, 30(2):192-194. Liu Lianglin, Wang Quanfeng, Shen Zhangchun, et al. The selection method of seismic wave based on elastic total input energy[J]. Journal of Huaqiao University (Natural Science), 2009, 30(2):192-194. (in Chinese)
[65] 王东升, 岳茂光, 李晓莉, 等. 高墩桥梁抗震时程分析输入地震波选择[J]. 土木工程学报, 2013, 46(增刊):209-213 Wang Dongsheng, Yue Maoguang, Li Xiaoli, et al. Selections of real ground motions in seismic history analysis for bridges with high columns[J]. China Civil Engineering Journal, 2013, 46(Suppl):209-213. (in Chinese)
[66] Katsanos E I, Sextos A G. Structure-specific selection of earthquake ground motions for the reliable design and assessment of structures[J]. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 2018, 16(2):583-611.
[67] 叶献国, 王德才. 结构动力分析实际地震动输入的选择与能量评价[J]. 中国科学:科学技术, 2011, 41(11):1430-1438. Ye Xianguo, Wang Dongcai. Selection of real earthquake accelerograms for structural dynamic analysis and energy evaluation[J]. Science China:Technology Science, 2011, 54:2878-2885. (in Chinese)
[68] Krinitzsky E L, Chang F K. Specifying peak motions for design earthquakes[R]. Vicksburg, Mississippi:State-of-the-Art for Assessing Earthquake Hazards in the United States. US Army Corps of Engineers, 1977.
[69] Vanmarcke E H. Representation of earthquake ground motion:Scaled accelerograms and equivalent response spectra[R]. Vicksburg, Mississippi:State-of-the-Art for Assessing Earthquake Hazards in the United States. US Army Corps of Engineers, 1979.
[70] Luco N, Bazzurro P. Does amplitude scaling of ground motion records result in biased nonlinear structural drift responses?[J]. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 2007, 36(13):1813-1835.
[71] Kottke A R, Rathje E M. A semi-automated procedure for selecting and scaling recorded earthquake motions for dynamic analysis[J]. Earthquake Spectra, 2008, 24(4):911-932.
[72] Baker J W, Lee C. An improved algorithm for selecting ground motions to match a conditional spectrum[J]. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 2018, 22(4):708-723.
[73] Wang Gang. A ground motion selection and modification method capturing response spectrum characteristics and variability of scenario earthquakes[J]. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering.2011,31(4):611-625.
[74] Alimoradi A, Pezeshk S, Naeim F, et al. Fuzzy pattern classification of strong ground motion records[J]. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 2005, 9(3):307-332.
[75] Housner G.W. Spectrum intensities of strong motion earthquakes[C]. California, U.S.:Proceedings of the Symposium on Earthquake and Blast Effects on Structures, EERI, 1952.
[76] Arias A. A measure of earthquake intensity, inseismic design for nuclear power plants[R]. Cambridge, Massachusetts:MIT Press, 1970.
[77] 叶献国. 地震强度指标定义的客观评价[J]. 合肥工业大学学报:自然科学版, 1998, 21(6):7-11. Ye Xianguo. Objective evaluation on definition of earthquake intensity index[J]. Journal of Heffei University of Technology, 1998, 21(6):7-11. (in Chinese)
[78] Riddell R, Garcia E J. Hysteretic energy spectrum and damage control[J]. Earthquake Engineering and Structure Dynamics, 2001, 30(12):1791-1816.
[79] 叶列平, 马千里, 缪志伟. 结构抗震分析用地震动强度指标的研究[J]. 地震工程与工程振动, 2009, 29(4):9-22. Ye Lieping, Ma Qianli, Miao Zhiwei. Study on earthquake intensities for seismic analysis of structures[J]. Journal of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 2009, 29(4):9-22. (in Chinese)
[80] 李英民, 丁文龙, 黄宗明. 地震动幅值特性参数的工程适用性研究[J]. 重庆建筑大学学报, 2001, 23(6):16-21. Li Yingmin, Ding Wenlong, Huang Zongming. Study on the suitability of amplitude definitions of strong ground motions for engineering purpose[J]. Journal of Chongqing Jianzhu University, 2001, 23(6):16-21. (in Chinese)
[81] 韩建平, 周伟. 基于汶川地震记录的地震动强度指标与SDOF体系响应的相关性[J]. 土木工程学报, 2010, 43(增刊):10-15. Han Jianping, Zhou Wei. Correlation between ground motion intensity indices and SDOF system responses based on the data of Wenchuan earthquake[J]. China Civil Engineering Journal, 2010, 43(Suppl):10-15. (in Chinese)
[82] 卢啸, 陆新征, 叶列平. 超高层建筑地震动强度指标探讨[J]. 土木工程学报, 2012, 45(增刊):292-296. Lu Xiao, Lu Xinzheng, Ye Lieping. Discussion on the ground motion intensity measures for super high-rise buildings[J]. China Civil Engineering Journal, 2012, 45(Suppl):292-296. (in Chinese)
[83] 苏宁粉, 周颖, 吕西林, 等. 增量动力分析中地震动强度参数的有效性研究[J]. 西安建筑科技大学学报(自然科学版), 2016, 48(6):846-852. Su Ningfen, Zhou Ying, Lü Xilin, et al. Study on the efficiency of intensity measures for incremental dynamic analysis[J]. Journal of Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology (Natural Science Edition), 2016, 48(6):846-852. (in Chinese)
[84] 周颖, 苏宁粉, 吕西林. 高层建筑结构增量动力分析的地震动强度参数研究[J]. 建筑结构学报, 2013, 34(2):53-60. Zhou Ying, Su Ningfen, Lü Xilin. Study on intensity measure of incremental dynamic analysis for high-rise structures[J]. Journal of Building Structures, 2013, 34(2):53-60. (in Chinese)
[85] Kurama Y, Farrow K. Ground motion scaling methods for different site conditions and structure characteristics[J]. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics. 2003, 32(15):2425-2450.
[86] O'Donnell A P, Kurama Y C, Kalkan E, et al. Experimental evaluation of four ground-motion scaling methods for dynamic response-history analysis of nonlinear structures[J]. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 2017, 15(5):1899.
[87] Tan Q, Li Y M, Qin Y, et al. A spectral intensity index of ground motions for input selection with consideration of higher modes effect for super high-rise buildings[C]. Santiago, Chile:Proceedings of the 16th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 2017.
[88] FEMA 355C. State of the art report on systems performance of steel moment frames subject to earthquake ground shaking[R]. CA:SAC Joint Venture, Sacra-mento, 2000.
[89] 谢礼立, 翟长海. 最不利设计地震动研究[J]. 地震学报, 2003, 25(3):250-261. Xie Lili, Zhai Changhai. Study on the severest real ground motion for seismic design and analysis[J]. Acta Seismologica Sinica, 2003, 25(3):250-261. (in Chinese)
[90] 曲哲, 叶列平, 潘鹏. 建筑结构弹塑性时程分析中地震动记录选取方法的比较研究[J]. 土木工程学报, 2011, 44(7):10-21. Qu Zhe, Ye Lieping, Pan Peng. Comparative study on methods of selecting earthquake ground motions for nonlinear time history analyses of building structures[J]. China Civil Engineering Journal, 2011, 44(7):10-21. (in Chinese)
[91] Bradley B A. A generalized conditional intensity measure approach and holistic ground-motion selection[J]. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 2010, 39(12):1321-1342.
[92] Angelo M, Marco V, Marco M. Selection of natural and synthetic accelerograms for seismic vulnerability studies on reinforced concrete frames[J]. Journal of Structural Engineering, 2011, 137(3):367-378.
[93] Hancock J, Bommer J J, Stafford P J. Numbers of scaled and matched accelerograms required for inelastic dynamic analyses[J]. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 2008; 37(4):1585-1607.
[94] Carballo J E. Probabilistic seismic demand analysis spectrum matching and design[D]. Stanford University, CA, 2000.
[95] ISO/DIS 19901-2, Petroleum and natural gas industriesSpecific requirements for offshore structures-Part 2:Seismic design procedures and criteria[S]. International Organization for Standardization, 1990.
[1] LI Hong-nan, CHENG Hu, WANG Dong-sheng. A REVIEW OF ADVANCES IN SEISMIC FRAGILITY RESEARCH ON BRIDGE STRUCTURES [J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2018, 35(9): 1-16.
[2] YANG Can-tian, XIE Lin-lin, LI Ai-qun, ZENG De-min, LIU Li-de. INTENSITY MEASURES FOR SEISMICALLY ISOLATED TALL BUILDINGS [J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2018, 35(8): 21-29.
[3] LIU Ting-ting, YU Xiao-hui, LÜ Da-gang. ANALYSIS OF CORRELATION BETWEEN PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS OF MULTIVARIATE EARTHQUAKE INTENSITY MEASURES AND STRUCTURAL DAMAGE [J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2018, 35(8): 122-129,137.
[4] ZHANG Rui, CHENG Hu, WU Hao, WANG Dong-sheng. MULTI-BAND MATCHING METHOD FOR SELECTION OF GROUND MOTIONS IN TIME-HISTORY ANALYSIS CONSIDERING HIGHER MODES EFFECTS [J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2018, 35(6): 162-172.
[5] LIU Jiao, LIU Jing-min, YU Bo, YANG Lu-feng. RECENT RESEARCH PROGRESS ON STRUCTURAL SYSTEM RELIABILITY ANALYSIS [J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2017, 34(增刊): 31-37.
[6] FAN Zhong, LIU Tao, CHEN Wei, YANG Kai. STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF FOUNDATION STIFFNESS ON THE SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS [J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2017, 34(7): 203-213.
[7] CHEN Jian-bing, ZENG Xiao-shu, PENG Yong-bo. TIME-HISTORY ANALYSIS AND STIFF PROPERTIES OF NONLINEAR VISCOUS DAMPER SYSTEMS [J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2016, 33(7): 204-211.
[8] JIN Wei-liang, CHEN Jia-yun, MAO Jiang-hong, XU Chen, XIA Jin. THE EFFECT OF ELECTROCHEMICAL REHABILITATION ON SERVICE PERFORMANCE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES [J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2016, 33(2): 1-10.
[9] HU Xiao-bin, HE Hui-gao. STUDY ON EQUAL-STRENGTH RESIDUAL DISPLACEMENT RATIO SPECTRUM [J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2015, 32(1): 163-167.
[10] LUO Yao-zhi, ZHENG Yan-feng, YANG Chao, YU Ying, YU Feng, ZHANG Peng-fei. REVIEW OF THE FINITE PARTICLE METHOD FOR<br/>COMPLEX BEHAVIORS OF STRUCTURES [J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2014, 31(8): 1-7,23.
[11] LIU Jin-mei, ZHOU Guo-qiang. STUDY ON BEARING CAPACITY OF IN-SERVICE DRILLING DERRICKS BASED ON STATIC AND DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE [J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2014, 31(8): 250-256.
[12] GENI Mamtimin, IMIN Rahmatjan. MODERN NUMERICAL SIMULATION METHODS AND ITS PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS IN ENGINEERING [J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2014, 31(4): 11-18.
[13] SHI Gang,BAN Hui-yong,SHI Yong-jiu,WANG Yuan-qing. OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH PROGRESS FOR HIGH STRENGTH STEEL STRUCTURES [J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2013, 30(1): 1-13.
[14] ZHANG Xi,LOU Meng-lin,LIN Qiao. ANALYSIS OF TRAVELING WAVE EFFECTS ON SEISMIC RESPONSES OF TWIN-TOWER STRUCTURE UNDER HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL SEISMIC EXCITATIONS [J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2012, 29(增刊Ⅱ): 133-138.
[15] NIE Jian-guo, WANG Yu-hang. RESEARCH STATUS ON FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF STEEL-CONCRETE COMPOSITE BEAMS [J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2012, 29(6): 1-11.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
No Suggested Reading articles found!